Cappadocia is an extraordinary geological area in central Turkey - reminiscent of a lunar landscape pitted with small volcanic craters, vast barren plateaus and steep jagged cliffs. Only an occasional oasis laying low in semi fertile valleys fed by mineral laden volcanic soil breaks its moonlike landscape. Several centuries ago the Christians hid from encroaching Arab, Persian and Roman forces by building underground cave-like cities linked by secret tunnels. Only when it was safe to surface did the people tend to their fields above. Some of the cities descend some 21 stories. We explore the Museum of Goreme, one of the area's most interesting sights with some of the best preserved frescoes in Cappadocia. Afterwards, we start walking in the Meskendir Valley, which is full with old cave houses and complexes from the old Christian civilisation. Next we cross over to the beautiful Red and Rose Valleys with its spectacular formations and colours where, time permitting, there is an opportunity to visit some hidden churches. Afterwards, optional visits can be made to a pottery centre to learn the 5000 yr old traditions of this craft; and to a carpet workshop, where the knotted or flat woven (kilim) carpets are among the best known art forms produced by the Turks. There are environmental, sociological, economic, and religious reasons for the art of carpet weaving among the Turkish people. Some of these are incorporated into the colourful carpet designs. Walking time: 4/5 h; Walking Distance: 9 km; Ascent: 85m; Descent: 135m (Meskendir Valley; Red & Rose Valley).